Dwight Eisenhower

Dwight Eisenhower was the first Military Governor of U.S. occupied Germany. He served from the end of the war until November 1945, when he was appointed Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

Judge Joseph Warren Madden

Judge Joseph Warren Madden served as the Associate Director, Director, and Legal Advisor of OMGUS’s Legal Division from 1945 to 1946. Loewenstein held him in high regard, although he was concerned by Madden’s lack of knowledge about German legal theory.

General Lucius D. Clay

General Lucius D. Clay was the Deputy Military Governor for the U.S. Zone during the time that Loewenstein was in Germany. Military Governors Dwight Eisenhower, Goerge Patton and Joseph McNarney preceeded Clay, who became Military Governor in 1947.  Loewenstein criticized Clay for attempting to democratize Germany too quickly.  Loewenstein would have preferred a more thorough denazification before returning substantial power to the German people.

Charles Fahy

Charles H. Fahy served as the Director of the Legal Division of the U.S. Group Control Council in Germany. Loewenstein frequently expressed concern that Fahy’s background as a New Deal lawyer and lack of knowledge about German legal history made him ill-suited to spearhead the legal reconstruction of Germany.

As a specialist consultant for the Legal Division, Loewenstein’s responsibilities included drafting laws and attending meetings. However, most of his recommendations went unacknowledged. OMGUS preferred to ignore the advice of experts. Instead, General Lucius Clay tried to install the trappings of democracy as quickly as possible.

OMGUS Hierarchy

The Office of the Military Government, United States (OMGUS), was a part of the quadripartite government of occupied Germany.  The military governor of OMGUS met with the military governors of the other three powers on the Control Council. The deputy governors comprised the Coordinating Committee, and the rest of OMGUS joined with the other military governments to form the Control Staff. OMGUS itself was subdivided into sections tasked with administering the different states under U.S. control. The reformed German state and local governments existed under the auspices of the OMGUS state governments and their local affiliates. While controlled by the US Military Government, the Berlin section of OMGUS reported to the Berlin Kommandatura, which was a quadripartite organization charged with administering the four sectors of Berlin. Karl Loewenstein worked in the Berlin section of OMGUS as a specialist consultant to the Legal Division.